Epub Julian T. Jackson ë Epub France The Dark Years 1940 1944 ePUB Ê Dark Years ë papercuts.co

This is the first comprehensive study of the German occupation of France between 1940 and 1944 The author examines the nature and extent of collaboration and resistance different experiences of Occupation the persecution of the Jews intellectual and cultural life under Occupation and the purge trials that followed He concludes by tracing the legacy and memory of the Occupation since 1945 Taking in ordinary peoples' experiences this volume uncovers the conflicting memories of occupation which ensure that even today France continues to debate the legacy of the Vichy years


10 thoughts on “France The Dark Years 1940 1944

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    Page 23 my book As the historian Rene Remond says about 1940 “those who had never accepted 1789 finally took their revenge”This is a thorough examination of the Vichy regime which was as the quote above says an attempt to bring France back to conservative traditional values The motto “Work Family Country” replaced the revolutionary “Liberty Equality Fraternity”We are given the prelude to this France suffered not only a tremendous loss of life during World War I but also a drop in morale leading to a disillusionment with democracy and liberalismPage 62 63 They were a political generation bereft of political anchors able to pass from surrealism to communism reformist socialism to fascism radicalism to fascism Action francaise to communism with intermediate stages on the way They all shared a suspicion even visceral rejection of liberal democracy There was a rejection of democratic values with the ascendancy of communism and Nazism There was a growing disenchantment with “professional politicians”Petain stepped into this void in June 1940 and made an armistice with HitlerThis book is split into different topics so it is not chronological Vichy attempted a “National Revolution” to bring traditional French values that encompassed the land xenophobia particularly of Jews family anti modernity It was opposed to the so called decadence and individualism of the Third Republic that supposedly led to the humiliation of 1940Page 250 51 When prefects listened to popular opinion in the Vichy years the loudest sounds they heard were not political slogans but rumbling stomachs It undermined Petain’s claim that by signing the Armistice he had saved France from the deprivations of war and it subverted Vichy’s rhetoric of moral unityThere were many in France who collaborated in different ways just like those who resisted There was only a small number in France who made up an “army of resistance”France was essentially divided into two sections – Occupied France which included Paris – and unoccupied France Vichy France which used the small town of Vichy for its capital and whose leader was Marshall Petain This breakdown is somewhat simplified because the Atlantic coastal areas were another zone controlled by the German ArmyThe resistance was different in both areas In Vichy it had a strong political dimension because it opposed not only the Germans but in a various ways the Vichy regime In the occupation zone the Germans were the enemy But this too is mis leading because many French police in both zones worked hand in hand with the GermansThe Vichy leaders Petain Laval Darlan started to lose credibility for a number of reasons In November 1942 the German army moved into the Vichy zone when the Allies landed in North Africa The Vichy regime was seen as impotent because it could do very little to oppose the round up of French men for forced labour in Germany Many of these men evaded the round ups and joined the resistance – or they simply went into hidingThis book points out the wide diversity of views and groups within France There was no unified group of collaborators or resistors There were several factions each with regional differences as wellThe book discusses the many important figures – DeGaulle of course Petain Laval who was tried and executed at wars end Jean Moulin – and many different writers The role of the communist party is brought up – which also reinforced collaboration as there were strong anti communist parties in France In fact there was a fighting right wing French force that were decimated on the German Eastern frontAlso the horrible and forced evacuation of Jews from all areas of France with the full cooperation of the French police is discussedPage 357 Elmar Michel German civil servant in France “To make the French authorities participate in the elimination of the Jews In this way we shall make the French share responsibility for Aryanization and we shall have at our disposal the French administrative apparatus”By May 1944 over 40000 Jewish enterprises had been placed in trusteeship and of these three quarters had been sold to “Aryans’The author has a strong penchant for name dropping and the use of acronyms within the same paragraph This at times makes the reading rather tediousBut we are given an engrossing history of this bleak difficult period of France And the epilogue illustrates well how it continues to resound in present day France