☆ [PDF / Epub] ★ ?מתי ואיך הומצא העם היהודי By Shlomo Sand ✩ – Papercuts.co

Even though it is a detailed academic study, it is a pleasure to read The language is crisp some of the plaudits here must go to the translator But what I found particularly enjoyable was the progressive building of the argument, citing source after source, evaluating them as adding or not to the tower of knowledge he constructs What is a nation Is there was there ever a Jewish nation The constuction of myths cast as history, such as the invention of the exile of the Jews.There was no exile, he argues How Zionist historians often glossed over inconvenient history including archeological finds in their deire to prove the existence of a Jewish Nation Sand is Jewish and teaches at Tel Aviv University so this is no antisemitic treatise For anyone interested in the Middle East and Israel s position in it this should be compulsory reading Not everyone will agree with his conclusions, however the clarity of his writing and the logic of the argument make it a book hard to dismiss Geoffrey Lambert author of The Morozov Inheritance I attempted to read this book in preparation for a trip to Israel figuring that if I can t find objective sources at least I know the particular author s bias I enjoyed the story telling in the introduction of the book however the discussion of nations and modern nationalism in the first chapter quickly showed me that bias would not be my biggest criticism Sand focuses entirely on black and white thinking He seemingly argues that the modern notion of the Nation or nationalism or nation state is the only notion that can be used ignoring similar concepts in history and the etymology of the word nation Sand makes arbitrary separations about size, language, religion and culture This dogmatic, illogical, and poorly argued premise is one example of the depth or lack thereof of arguments that Sand puts forth.The basic premise of the book is that the current Jewish people making up the state of Israel are not the original inhabitants of that land and therefore have no legitimate claim on it Unfortunately, Sand s explanations for European Jews who founded Zionism and Israel is conversion espousing the psuedohistory notion that Ashkenazi Jews, in particular, descend from Khazar converts from the Thirteenth Tribe by Arthur Koestler Genetic studies have irrefutably shown that modern Jews have common descent similar to modern human populations in Israel Palestinians and Lebabnon with admixture from various other genetic backgrounds including Europeans Genetic studies have also shown that Palestinians are closely related to Jewish groups with some admixture from Arab groups Sands basic premise is unsupportable Both Jews and Palestinians are likely descended from a common population.His other arguments for a large conversion population seem weak although certainly the most historically interesting to me I would have also been interested in historic intermarriage between Jews and European populations However, neither the existence of converts nor intermarriage really supports his argument.Sand also sets himself as a prosecuted minority going after The Truth, while the establisment maintains a diliberately false image of history, the Zionist movement and the state of Israel This requires a major rewrite of the Zionist movement and view of Judaism as a collective identity as well as creating a homogenous and conscious modern Jewish establisment to rail against it While I don t doubt that some Jews and Christians hold infalliable views of the bible as a historic document, I would argue that this is likely a fringe view in any academic dealing with history, archealogy and or anthropology.Utimately, I think that legitamate criticisms can be made about the state of Israel however, Sand completely misses the conversation by producing and maintaining wrong conclusions with ahistoric arguments Of course Sand responded to the newest genetic evidence with It is a bitter irony to see the descendants of Holocaust survivors set out to find a biological Jewish identity A statement that is both irrelevant and nonsensical as many of the recent studies have emphasized the common origin of Israeli and Levant populations as it fails to actually address the fact that modern Jews descended from Middle Eastern ancestral populations and as it does not address the actual problems in Israel. Quand Le Peuple Juif Fut Il Cr Est Ce Il Y A Quatre Mille Ans, Ou Bien Sous La Plume D Historiens Juifs Du XIXe Si Cle Qui Ont Reconstitu R Trospectivement Un Peuple Imagin Afin De Fa Onner Une Nation Future Dans Le Sillage De La Contre Histoire N E En Isra L Dans Les Ann Es , Shlomo Sand Nous Entra Ne Dans Une Plong E Travers L Histoire De Longue Dur E Des Juifs Les Habitants De La Jud E Furent Ils Exil S Apr S La Destruction Du Second Temple, En L An De L Re Chr Tienne, Ou Bien S Agit Il D Un Mythe Chr Tien Qui Aurait Infiltr La Tradition Juive L Auteur Montre Comment, Partir Du XIXe Si Cle, Le Temps Biblique A Commenc Tre Consid R Par Les Premiers Sionistes Comme Le Temps Historique, Celui De La Naissance D Une Nation Ce D Tour Par Le Pass Conduit L Historien Un Questionnement Beaucoup Plus Contemporain L Heure O Certains Biologistes Isra Liens Cherchent Encore D Montrer Que Les Juifs Forment Un Peuple Dot D Un ADN Sp Cifique, Que Cache Aujourd Hui Le Concept D Tat Juif , Et Pourquoi Cette Entit N A T Elle Pas R Ussi Jusqu Maintenant Se Constituer En Une R Publique Appartenant L Ensemble De Ses Citoyens, Quelle Que Soit Leur Religion En D Non Ant Cette D Rogation Profonde Au Principe Sur Lequel Se Fonde Toute D Mocratie Moderne, Shlomo Sand D Laisse Le D Bat Historiographique Pour Proposer Une Critique De La Politique Identitaire De Son Pays I have written reviews of many books here If there is one above all the rest that I would like others to read it would be this one.Regardless of the country you call home, it rests on a foundation of myths, stories of the distant past that unite the citizenry Israel is no exception, yet the story of the historical Jews is one that people in the United States are familiar with that that of any other people.Shlomo Sand begins his book discussing definitions what are a people What is a nation With his terms defined, he looks at the story of the Jews and how it relates to what has been discovered or not by archeology, philology language study and archival research.He takes us from the founding myth of the Jews as a tribe descended from Abraham, in captivity in Egypt, escaping in the Exodus, wandering in the desert for 40 years, defeating the Canaanites, living under kings David and Solomon, exiled to Babylon, returning to Judea, expelled by the Romans and continuing on to the present in Israel.There s only one problem Except for the Babylonian exile, none of this account of the Jews in ancient times holds up There is no evidence for any of it and plenty of facts that deny it The central fact is that there was never any expulsion of the Jews by the Romans after the Jewish revolt was suppressed in 70 CE.But the facts are no less interesting than the myth Did you know there was a Jewish Khazar empire between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea Did you know there was a long period 400 years of enthusiastic conversion to Judaism prior to the coming of Christianity Did you know there was a Jewish warrior queen in north Africa and a Jewish kingdom in what is now Yemen Sand effectively makes the case that the vast majority of today s Jews have no connection by birth to the Jews of ancient Palestine The Palestinians of today are likely related to the Jews of ancient times Today s Jews are descendants of converts to Judaism It is impossible to define the Jews by genetics, only by religion.So where did the mythology come from It is based on the Biblical account and even that was never considered to be based on hard facts until the coming of Zionism put it to use to create the body of people who would become the people of modern Israel it was a script, made concrete and embellished by those with an agenda for creating a new country.And the agenda continues to be followed by historians in the modern state of Israel One of the most remarkable things mentioned by Sand is the complete lack of scholarly research into the origins of modern Jewry by anyone in Israel Why Because it would contradict the story of the nation, the story that is in Israeli textbooks used in Israeli schools to teach history.The overwhelming evidence for the origin of the Yiddish speaking millions of eastern Europe destroyed or driven out by the end of WW2 points to the Khazar empire and not Germany The Sephardim of Spain and north Africa came not from ancient Palestine but from converts to Judaism There is no Jewish gene, just as there is no Anglican or Methodist or Catholic gene.The book concludes by an examination of the dilemma of modern Israel a country that denies there is such a thing as an Israeli or an Israeli culture Citizens of Israel are defined as Jews quite intentionally to connect them to the Jews of the world and to disconnect them from the Palestino Israelis, the Arab citizens of Israel who make up a fifth of the population of the country, but are denied acknowledgment as full citizens.Israelis allow orthodox religious Jews to determine who is a Jew for the purpose of citizenship precisely to maintain the connection to world Jewry as a pseudo biological link This mythological link allows Israel to take in foreigners in all but religion as rightful heirs to the land while denying legitimacy to those who have actually been living on the land, the Palestinian It s an inherently unstable situation that cannot continue indefinitely The book is a warning that things must change in the direction of a true democracy and away from an ethnocracy.The Invention of the Jewish People is a riveting read during which Sand systematically and very clearly demolishes myth under the bright light of solid research In the process he introduces the people who built the myth to epic proportions and relates how they did so Shlomo Sand is a credit to his profession Bravo American readers of this review should check out my blog, Daylight between America and Israel This is a really excellent and brilliantly original book written about the origins of the Jewish people Shlomo Sand, who is an Israeli historian, shows that in fact European Jews were converts to the religion rather than being descendents of a Jewish race By the same token, he maintains and that the original Jews who stayed in their country of origin eventually converted to Islam and are today s or many Jews wish to hear though I gather it was a best seller in Israel As a Jew in name, but not in religion, I personally find it a highly persuasive thesis It is a fascinating read and also an impassioned plea for a new non Jewish state that encompasses both Jews and Palestinians on equal terms. A wonderful book that convincingly unpacks the myths of Zionism Shlomo Sand shows himself conversant with ancient history, Biblical scholarship, theoretical innovations in the social sciences, and contemporary politics His argument culminates in the case for a single, binational state of Israel Palestine that belongs equally to all its citizens Given the patent bad faith of many who smear anti Zionism as necessarily anti semitic, this book has not had the impact it deserves Nonetheless, for anyone with minimal intellectual honesty and a concern for justice, it remains required reading There were no such thing as Palestinians Golda Meir was maybe half right All nationalities are a relatively recent invention There was no such thing as the Jewish people either, certainly not in the sense of an ethnic identity or blood kinship stretching back to the mists of time A deeper exploration of the ways of life and communication in past Jewish communities might further expose a wicked little fact that the further we move from religious norms and the we focus our research on diverse daily practices, the we discover that there never was a secular ethnographic common denominator between the Jewish believers in Asia, Africa, and Europe World Jewry had always been a major religious culture Though consisting of various elements, it was not a strange, wandering nation pp 248 Some powerful testimony by the author here While Shlomo Sand s Invention of the Jewish People has attracted endless accolades from partisans with an axe to grind though not always exactly the same axe as the author any close scrutiny reveals the book to be little than a collection of strawmen arguments forming a feeble foundation for a weak argument Time and again, Sand rails against a scholarly consensus which seems to exist only in his mind and ignores the considerable primary source evidence that undermines his case Consider for example, his bold assertions about the lack of historicity of the Hebrew Bible or successful proselytization by Jews in the ancient world The former is of course particularly amusing to anyone with even a passing familiarity with Jewish history One could make good money betting that Sand could walk the length and breath of Tel Aviv s history department and not find a single faculty member who would make a claim that the Hebrew Bible could be read as a history book I might even go further, and say he could probably jump on the bus and do the same at Orthodox Bar Ilan University s history department and still come up empty handed The same could be said about claims with the subject of large scale conversion, a topic attested to by diverse ancient sources and widely written about by modern scholars For those readers interested in this topic, I would heartily recommend Seth Schwartz s provocative and well researched Imperialism and Jewish Society Unlike Sand, Schwartz is both familiar with the relevant ancient sources and reads the languages necessary to work directly from the original source texts Of course, where Sand really goes off the intellectual rails is where he goes further afield from the scholarly consensus No where is this clearer than in his assertions of Eastern European Jewry originating with the refugees from the central Asian Khazar Kingdom I used the term assertion intentionally, for the claim lacks even sufficient evidence to bring it to the level of a theory Nor can Sand even bring himself to deal with the substantial evidence against this notion which has it origin with the late 19th century racist Ernest Renan, instead resorting to invective and hyperbole for lack of a rational argument Instead, for example, in engaging in the genetic data which has appeared in numerous peer reviewed journals, Sand scorns the entire exercise by invoking the ghastly horrors of Nazi psudo science As with much of Sand s method in this book, one must assume that this rejection is selective to the Jewish case Genetic comparison is widely used in the historical analysis of migration patterns One can hardly imagine Professor Sand, for example, at a conference on the Norman roots of the northern French castigating some presenter of genetic data as a Nazi No, one suspects for Sand this epithet s use is limited primarily in an attempt to silence Jewish critics As with his treatment of conversion in the ancient world, on the Khazars as well, Sand makes odd claims that his writing is somehow revelatory Putting aside anecdotal data, such as my own memory of Jewish Khazaria being well known and widely discussed in my own youth, Pulitzer prize winner, Michael Chabon recently wrote an adventure novel which took place almost entirely in that ancient Jewish Kingdom And, should any wishing to leap to Sand s defense want to claim that this novel, Gentleman of the Road, is somehow obscure, it was actually serialized in that rarely read journal, The NY Times Sunday Magazine. Forget about everything you may have learned in Hebrew school, this book is a myth buster It is common knowledge that according to the Bible the Jewish people started with Abrahamin Mesopotamia and then went to Egypt to be slave and then was redeemed After wandering the desert for forty years under the leadership of Moses they came to Canaan where Joshua the brilliant military commander drove out the Canaanites in a lightning fast victory King David and his son Solomon would form man empire and build massive building in Jerusalem Later on still the Babylonians and the Roman would drive the Jews from their land and into exile.The author, a professor from Tel Aviv University, makes good use of current archeological excavation that show that the bible is far from 100% correct There is no outside reference In Egyptian in any other annals of the Israelites engaging in a mass escape from Egypt Moses left with 600 thousand male from Egypt along with their families This large number would have left some archaeological residue in the Sinai Desert There is none to be found Excavation in Jerusalem and the West Bank show no evidence of any of the building built by Solomon Tere is proof however of the Canaanite buildings and there civilization The building in the North that are attributed to King Solomon Have actually been built by later Israelite kings long after the supposed Israelite monarchy split into two kingdoms Jerusalem was naught than a small village whose population was in decline when King David was supposed to be in power The lightning fast victories of Joshua are not real The cities he conquered had fallen Hundreds if not thousands of years apart The Israelite started appearing gradually on the scene as an outgrowth off the original Canaanite People They were not monotheistic and many worshiped the other Canaanite gods The bible was fully written in the Babylonian Exile by the priests and their scribes It was in Babylon that the elite who were exiled mad e the religion exclusive and strictly monotheistic Jewish scholarship has known this for a very long time.The exile is a MYTH When the Babylonians andd the Assyrians came and invaded ancient Israel.They only deported the Elite and member of the Army Most of the peasants and farmers were allowed to stay The Romans did not have the means of moving a large population out of the country hence in that case too only a small number left In fact a careful reading of historical sources shows that there is reference to an invasion and that many Judeans were killed but there is no reference to an exile or deportations It can only be assumed that most of them stayed put This can be evidenced by the fact that jewish life continued to thrive some two hundred years after the Jewish Revolts against Rome After all the Talmud was written there, the Jerusalem Talmud that is The early Zionist historians had to deal with this fact when writing the history of the Jewish people a history that would justify building a country in Palestine Many like Dinur said that there was a Jewish majority up until the time the Muslim armies invaded the Middle East But there is no mention of deportation of people leaving the country What ever happened to all those Jews The Iraqi Rabbi makes a comment that he is worried about all the Jews in Judea accepting the religion of Islam The Judean peasant may have choosen Islam for a variety of reasons One was that those who weere not Muslims had to pay heavy protection taxes A conversion to Islam would annul the protection tax Besides many Jews did believve that Muhammad was a prophet that came to redeem them and many Jews did in fact fight on behalf of the Islamic Armies during their conquests This being stated prior to the arab riot of 1929 many zionist leaders including Ben Gurion and Ben Tzvi believed that the local fellahin arabs in Palestine at the time were descendant from Ancient Judeans Some villages even had a Sharia al Khalil Something seperate from the Koran The Palestinians are the descendants of the Ancient Israelites who were never deported from the country.If the Judeans were nver expelled en masse from the country theen where did all these Jewish communities come from The author makes a strong case that most of these communities deescended from converts The official Jewish line is that they do not accept converts In fact there are contradictory statement in both the Bible and the Talmud with regards to converts Some of these comments are positive and some are negative None the less Jewish history is replete with example of mass conversions into the Jewish religion During the Hasmonean time is when most of these communities of converts came into being Hellenism made Judaism universalistic and many societies broke down many wall and questioned their old pagan ways The Jews themselves were very Hellenistic even having Greek names The Hasmoneans forcibly converted the Idumeans in the South and the Itrurians in the North In Egyp there was a large Jewish community that spoke only greek Tractate and translations of the bible were written for the express purpose of converting In Elephantine a Jewish temple was discovered There documents in Persian but none in Aramaic or Hebrew In fact these Jewish communities that sprang up spoke their native language not Judean Hebrew In fact 8 10 citizens in the Roman empire were Jews This is attested to in the writing of many Roman historians To say that they all ccame from Judea is impossible The most that could live in Judea at that time was maybe a little over a million They could not all have radiated out of that small place.Many women were inclined to acccept the Jewish religion In fact there was a planned massacre in Damascus but it was called off , because the men thought that they would be massacred in their sleep by their wives who secretly practiced Judaism There were also Jewish kingdoms in Several location The most noteable is thee Khazar kingdom just north of Iran There was also Adiabene which was Jewish and assisted the Judeans during their revolt against the Roman There was also Dahiua El Kahina the Jewish Berber queen who fought against the Armies of Islam and eventually lost Her two sons converted to Islam and joined the other side There was also the Himyar Kingdom in Yemen that was eventually overthrown by Ethiopia aided by Rome.For Jewish history most people relied on the Old Testament The last complete History of the Jewish people in anccient times was composed by Josephus Flavius This was based on the Old Testament A history off the Jewish people would not be written until the early 1800 s by Protestants Jewish Historians like Jost wrote a history of the Jews but it was thorugh the perspective off the Jews being a followers of a religion not a race or people Later Salo Baron would write a History that documented the Jews as a people but that most of their development would occur in Exile Graetz and other historians would make the religious following into a people that centered on the importance of land.The last chapter goes on about European racial theories and how Zionism was a product of that time There was talk of Jewish blood and the need to grow healthy again by working the land in Israel Genetic testing is touched upon with some of the finding proving to be conclusive and other not so conclusive It seems that politics has a way of coloring scientific experiments The author finishes off with a discussion on the state of israelcomparing it to other democracies in the world and a cry to make it a country for all of it s citizens. The Invention of the Jewish People by Shlomo Sand The Invention of the Jewish People is an interesting yet controversial scholarly book about Jewish history through the eyes of leading historian Shlomo Sand What makes this book controversial is the fact that the author denies such a thing as a Jewish race that were descendents of the first exiles with everything that it entails This 344 page book is composed of the following five major chapters 1 Making Nations Sovereignty and Equality, 2 Mythistory In the Beginning, God Created the People, 3 The Invention of the Exile Proselytism and Conversion, 4 Realms of Silence In Search of Lost Jewish Time, and 5 The Distinction Identity Politics in Israel Positives 1 A well written, well researched book that will take you deep into the fascinating Jewish history 2 Professor Sand provides a lot of eye opening arguments in support of his views 3 A thought provoking and enlightening book 4 Professor Sand does not hold back He says what he has to say and has conviction and passion behind his words while providing compelling arguments in defense of his theories 5 A good history lesson on nationalism 6 A fascinating look at Zionism 7 A myth buster of a book Including the exile 8 The impact of Darwin s grand theory of evolution 9 A controversial look at the Old Testament and how the Bible became a decisive starting point of the Jewish past 10 The impact of archaeology Exiles Legendary kings Great flood 11 Polytheism to monotheism 12 Jewish genealogyThe DNA findings controversy 13 The fascinating history of proselytizing Jews Berber Judaizationand the fascinating story of the Judaized queen Khazars 14 The importance of religious identity 15 Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Arabian Jews 16 Understanding the Law of Return and the concept of ethnocracy 17 Fascinating conclusions 18 Links worked great 19 Excellent notes 20 Great afterword Negatives 1 As a non Jew, I found myself looking up the proper pronunciation of many people, places and Jewish traditions It s not a strike against the author so a limitation for any potential reader who is not familiar with Jewish terms 2 Once again, as a non Jew I have no cultural ties to the Jewish community but I can see where the issues brought up by Professor Sand can and has stir up a hornet s nest In other words, the issues brought forth will and has upset Jewish people 3 The initial chapter was a bit obscure until revelations were made 4 My skeptical nature keeps me from accepting everything at face value despite the compelling arguments There is so much information in this book it makes me wonder what is truly historically accurate and what is not, so it will entail further reading and research on my part Ones beliefs should be based on the best evidence possible but one must not also jump to conclusions 5 It was bit repetitive 6 Illustrations and or charts could have added value to the book In summary, The Invention of the Jewish People is one of the most interesting, enlightening books you will ever read My skeptical nature and my limited knowledge of Jewish history keeps me from accepting all the assertions at face value but at the very least Professor Sand has kindled my curiosity enough to pursue research I highly recommend reading this book with some noted observations. What a book This book exposes how fragile and vulnerable is the state of Israel, mainly because it is relying on biblical myths to construct its Zionist ideology and Jewish identity, rather than on actual history proven by archeological and biological research It is said that this book is another nail in the coffin of Zionism and I couldn t agree Unless the state of Israel starts acknowledging it s moral Schizophrenia and political hypocrisy, and it s discriminatory racist policies and let s not forget its violent actions against the native Palestinians it is unlikely that it will survive in a World that is dominated by international law, rather than on myths and some twisted interpretation of religions I urge you to read this book, and judge for yourself Way to go Shlomo Sand